Category: Blog

Latest News On The Himalayas

Posted By : jai/ 1185 1

Latest News Himalayas

Globeracers Schedule Challenging Runs For Ultra Runners In 2019

The Globeracers has scheduled a set of challenging runs for their ultra runner in 2019. The season of the running year will get underway with The Beast Ultra (TBU) — a desert race in April. It is described as one of the toughest desert runs in India and will start from Pokhran in Thar Desert. According to a release by the Globeracers, the participants will be from various parts of India and the race is divided into 160, 100, 75, 50 and 25 kms categories.

Latest News Himalayas - The Beast Ultra


The desert race will be followed by an event at the hills — The Himalayan crossing(THC). It will be an alpine challenge and starts from Kaza in Himachal. The route criss-crosses through mountain ranges of the Himalayas via Kinnaur and Spiti valleys before ending at the Rohtang La.

The 2019 race calendar has three more Ultra runs namely Uttarkashi 220 in September, Bhatti Lakes Ultra in NCR slated to take place in October and Nilgiris Ultra in November.

Source: NDTV


French Couple, Lost While Trekking In Garhwal Himalayas, Rescued: Cops

A rescue team of the SDRF was sent to the route from Rudraprayag on Friday morning and managed to locate the couple near Deoriatal in the afternoon.

At this page we would like to share curated Latest News from Himalayas, We will update it weekly basis.

Source: NDTV



Worst Year in the History of Nepal’s Mountaineering and Trekking History
Latest News Himalayas

Year 2014 is the worst till now in the Nepal’s history of mountaineering and trekking. First it was an avalanche on Mount Everest in April whick took lives of 16 Sherpas – and resulted strike by Sherpas and very few summits to the world’s highest peak during the main climbing season.

The latest tragedy hits during the peak trekking season. Thousands of trekkers head to Nepal during September and October for post monsoon trekking season to enjoy high altitude trekking pass and pristine beauty were caught in the heavy snowfall resulted because of HUDHUD cyclone in India.

The tragedy will badly hurt Nepal’s tourism, with officials worried about the wider negative message it sends. Trekking and mountaineering are the key backbones of the industry – the major foreign exchange earner for Nepal.

By the year 2070, we could lose…The Himalayas
Source: Fox News
latest news on Himalayas
Sherpa on Everest expedition dies in Nepal

A government official in Nepal says that a Sherpa who was guiding a group of climbers on an Everest expedition in the Himalayas has fallen into a crevasse and died. Sherpa had scaled the peak twice before. He is the second guide to die while climbing Everest in this year’s spring climbing season. Climbers generally try to scale Everest in May. On Wednesday, experienced climber Karsang Namgyal died from altitude sickness. Everest is the world’s highest mountain and has an 8,850-meter (29,035-foot) peak. Source: Fox News

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Manali to Leh Ladakh tour

The Manali to Leh Highway

Posted By : jai/ 1716 1

Manali to Leh Highway

Manali to Leh Highway Status : Closed

Manali to Leh Highway Opening Dates 2018: Expected to Open in May 2018

Manali to Leh Road trip is the ultimate adventure as it crossed 5 high altitude passes i.e. Rohtang Pass, Baralacha La, Nakeela, Lachungla La and Tangalanga La which is the highest among all these passes. Some of the famous sites along the Manali to Leh Highway are

  • Moorie Plains or Pang Moraine
  • Ghata Loops
  • Dharcha
  • Zing Zing Bar
  • Confluence of Chandra and Bhaga River at Chenab
  • Sarchu
  • Jispa

Manali Leh Highway

Manali to Leh Highway

The road from Manali to Leh is open for 4-5 months, between June and October, every year before the snow cover it up. The Manali to leh highway remains under snow until it is opened by the Border Roads Organisation (Indian Army’s road division). This road has some of the best views of the Himalayas and some of the world’s highest motorable roads with an average elevation of around 4000 Metres or 13000 Feet. The first great pass is the Rohtang Pass (3948 Mts) which is around 53 Kms from Manali. Then we pass the Baralach La (5030 Mts) and Tanglang La Pass (5360 Mts) which is also worlds thirds highest motorable pass after Khardung La and Chang La.

Manali to Leh


Manali to Leh Ladakh tour

In June Manali to Leh highway will be like this with snow measuring upto 10 feet on the both side of road at Baralachala and Rohtang Pass


manali to leh Lachungla high altitude pass

How to plan your Manali Leh Road Trip?

Manali to Leh is around 475 Kms of rugged high altitude mountain terrain so you need to break your road trip from in two or three legs Our Leh Ladakh Road Trip do in two days

Part 1: Manali to Jispa

Proper acclimatization is very necessary for Manali Leh Road Trip because once you cross Rohtang Pass you will be above altitude of 3000 meters. Our body need 24 hours to acclimatize to change in altitude of 500 meter so Jispa at 3000 meters is fairly safe to stay overnight in comparison to Sarchu which is situated at 4200 meters.

Part 2: Jispa to Leh

Start early from Jispa to Leh as once you cross Darcha to Pang the road condition is not great and you have to cross several water streams or we call them “Pagal Nalahs” over the road. If you are late then water level will increase in those streams.

Here is the video of Manali to Leh Highway

Few Important Things to Keep in Mind while planning your Manali Leh Road Trip

  • Keep yourself hydrated drink at least 4 liters of water everyday
  • Take proper govt. permits. Two permits are needed, enquire about them
  • Always Carry your vehicle Documents and Photo Id Cards
  • Personal Medicine Kit & Do not forget to consult a physician if you are Asthmatic, Hypertension or any Heart Ailments
  • UV protection Sun Glasses
  • Sun block cream – should have a good SPF rating like 45+
  • Lip balm and Moisturizer / Cold cream
  • Winter wears
  • Comfortable trekking shoes or sport shoes
  • Energy Bars and Dry Fruits
  • And of course a Good Camera.

We Plan Ladakh Tour with mountaineering certified guides throughout the trip to know more send enquiry

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Valley of Flowers trek

Trekking in Indian Himalayas Valley of Flowers

Posted By : jai/ 817 1

Valley of Flowers – The Gem of Indian Himalayas.

Himalayas are the youngest and tallest mountains on earth. Indian Himalayas spread from northern most part of  India i.e. Jammu and Kashmir to Eastern most part Assam. The design or spread of Indian Himalayas makes them home to variety of flora and fauna. Northern most part is barren land and known as cold desert while eastern Himalayas receives highest rainfall and are kind of humid subtropical. The lower Himalayas called Shivaliks fall in the category of subtropical climatic zone.

Valley of Flowers is located in Chamoli Garhwal in the state of Uttarakhand, in NDBR region (Nanda Devi Bioshpere reserve). About 595 kilometres from Delhi, the altitude of valley Uttaranchal varies from 3,200 m to 6,600 m.

The stunning landscape of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in northern India’s state of Uttarakhand, bordered by Nepal and Tibet, comes alive with the monsoon rain. This high-altitude Himalayan valley has around 300 different varieties of alpine flowers, which appear as a bright carpet of color against a mountainous snow capped background.

Few details for those who are planning to go for this beautiful Monsoon Trek in the Himalayas

What is the Valley of Flowers Best time? 

Valley of Flowers Best time is from July August and September. Valley of Flowers trek in June the entire valley is covered under thick snow as the snow starts melting the plants germinate and by the time monsoon arrives they start blooming.

What is the Valley of Flowers Trek difficulty 

Valley of Flowers trek difficulty level is of moderate because of the given distances and challenges of monsoon trekking. Valley of flowers trek facilities make it suitable for everyone as you will be staying in Hotels in Govindghat and Hotels in Ghangaria. The Hemkund Sahib Trek route have lot of eateries and restaurants.

What is the Valley of Flowers Height? 

Trek starts form Govindghat and you trek for 14 kms and reach Ghangaria and after staying one night you trek to Valley or Hemkund Sahib. Valley of Flowers height is around 3400 meters and Hemkund Sahib Height is 4633 meters.

Do Valley & Hemkund Sahib are done together? 

Hemkund Sahib Trek starts from Ghagaria or Govinddham, Hemkund Sahib distance from Ghangaria is 6 KMs. Hemkund Sahib trek Difficulty is challenging as it a steep trek of 6 Kms one side.

To Know more click on Valley of Flowers Trekking Packages

Brief Itinerary
Day 01: Rishikesh – Govindghat (276kms/8hr)
Day 02: GovindGhat  – Ghangaria (13kms/6hr Trek)
Day 03: Ghangaria – Valley Of Flowers – Ghangria (5 kms one side/4-5 hrs)
Day 04: Ghangaria to Hemkund Sahib Trek and return to Ghanghria (6 Kms one side 6 Hrs)
Day 05: Ghangaria – Govindghat (13kms trek down) Visit to Badirnath (Optional)
Day 06: Govindghat – Haridwar- (280kms/10hr)

Valley of Flowers Images

Valley of Flowers
White Flowers
Valley of Flowers
Golden Drops
Valley of Flowers
Flower in Valley of Flowers
Valley of Flowers
Best Alpine Flowers

 Valley of Flowers

Cobra Lily

Valley of Flowers
Amazing red flowers
Valley of Flowers Trek 2016
Valley and Flowers

Valley of Flowers

Stok Kangri Trek – Everything is Mind

Posted By : jai/ 1232 0

Stok Kangri – The Challenging Trekking Peak in India

Stok Kangri Peak in Leh Ladakh is most famous trekking peak and this trek offers multitude of adventures along the trekking route to Base camp and towering Stok Kangri height at 6153 meters high from mean sea level. Trek starts from Stok village where centuries old Stok Palace still stands strong. Leh Ladakh Tour is a must for any adventure enthusiast. Stok Kangri Trek is an ideal challenging trek for both experienced as well first time trekkers to Himalayas but they need to prepare well because the climb is a challenging trek because of its altitude.

The Stok Kangri Trekking experience entails ice climbing, crampon, glacier trekking, Ice climbing and traversing the thin trekking trail to summit over the sharp ridge. Combine your Stok Expedition with a short tour to Zanskar Valley, Pangong Lake and Nubra Valley.

Everything is Mind

When I was doing my Basic Mountaineering Course in HMI Darjeeling we had one instructor by the name Mr. Bhutia. He was an extremely talented mountaineer and a very good teacher. During our training he used to keep repeating the phrase ” Everything is mind”. Which meant that we could do anything if we could conquer our minds. This is probably as true for life as it is for mountaineering and high altitude trekking.

This pic which I came across  reminds of that phrase.

Dont Give up - Stok Kangri Trek
Dont Give up

During my first  Expedition in Leh Ladakh those words inspired me a lot. Mind over matter in now a truism I try to live by. Every year many trekkers from world come for this expedition from June to October few only reach up to the summit. Trekking or Mountaineering is more of mental game rather then physical. Below picture is an example when I reached on the summit of stok for the first time in 2011 there was fellow trekker (In Red Jacket) who was on the summit and he was an amputee and he reached the summit of Stok on his own with his guide.


Stok Kangri
On the Summit of Stok Kangri

What is Rock Climbing?

Posted By : jai/ 782 0

I loved this graphic on Rock Climbing i found on the internet.


List of Peaks in the Himalayas

Posted By : jai/ 2950 2

List of Peaks in the Himalayas

The arc-shaped Indian Himalayas extend along the entire northern boundary of India from the state of Jammu & Kashmir in west to Arunachal Pradesh in the east. The term “Himalaya” from Sanskrit meaning the “The Abode of Snow”. For centuries Indians have been fascinated by these mountains for pilgrimage in early days now for trekking and other adventure sports.

The Indian Himalayas cover a vast area along the northern frontiers of the country and span five Indian States — Jammu and Kashmir , Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh — from west to east. The true divisions of the Indian Himalayas are based on the mountain ranges rather than the state boundaries. From west to east, the Indian Himalayas can be divided into

  • Kashmir (Jammu & Kashmir)
  • Ladakh  (Jammu & Kashmir)
  • Zanskar  (Jammu & Kashmir)
  • Lahaul and Spiti (HP)
  • Chamba (HP)
  • Kinnaur (HP)
  • Kumaon (Uttarakhand)
  • Garhwal (Uttarakhand)
  • Sikkim (Sikkim)
  • Arunachal (Arunachal Pradesh)

My Top Peaks in the Himalayas of India

Khangchendzonga / Kanchenjunga

Kanchenjunga gets its name from the the Bhutia and Tibetan languages which means “The Five Treasures of Snows” as it contains five peaks. Kanchenjunga is the third highest peak in the Himalayas and the world and the highest in India. Kanchenjunga stands tall with an elevation of 8,586 meters (28,169 ft).

List of Peaks Kanchenjunga- Peaks in the Himalayas
Kanchenjunga- Peaks in the Himalayas

Nanda Devi (25663 ft, 7824 m) 

Nanda devi is the second highest mountain peak in the Himalayas in India. This is the highest peak (entirely) in the country, as Kanchenjunga lies on the border areas of India and Nepal. It was the highest known mountain in the world until 1808 when western surveyors discovered Dhaulagiri. The mountain stands tall at an elevation of 7824 meters (25663 ft). The Nanda devi peak is the part of Garhwal Himalayas and lies in the state of Uttrakhand.

Climbing is not allowed on Nanda Devi as it is declared as holy peak. During my discussion with Mr. Kushang Sherpa (Climbed Everest from all side including Kangshung face and other 8 thousanders) he said that Nanda Devi is the toughest to climb. A fabulous trek that takes you into the Nanda Devi Sanctuary is the Kuari Pass Trek.

List of Peaks Nanda Devi- Peaks in the Himalayas
Nanda Devi- Peaks in the Himalayas

Kamet (25446 ft, 7756 m)

Kamet is the second highest mountain peak in the Himalayas of Garhwal. It lies in the Chamboli District of Uttrakhand. It is the third highest peak in India (according to India however, the rank is much lower as it includes in its list of mountains all those in Pakistan occupied Kashmir).

List of Peaks Kamet-Peaks in the Himalayas
Mt. Kamet-Peaks in the Himalayas

Saser Kangri (25172 ft, 7672 m) 

Saser Kangri (or Sasir Kangri) is the highest peak in the Saser Muztagh, the easternmost sub-range of the Karakoram range in India. This massif lies toward the northwestern end of the Saser Muztagh, at the head of the North Shukpa Kunchang Glacier, a major glacier which drains the eastern slopes of the group.

List of Peaks Mt. Saser Kangri-Indian Himalayas
Mt. Saser Kangri-Indian Himalayas

Mana (23860 ft, 7273 m)

Northeast of Badrinath is another impressive cluster of mountain peaks in the Himalayas. The mountains rise almost on the Indo-Tibetan border with Mana and Kamet as the principal peaks. Mana itself marks the eastern extremity of the Zanskar range. It lies between the pass of the same name and the Niti Pass.

mana peak-Indian Himalayas
mana peak-Indian Himalayas

How to Find the Right Backpack

Posted By : jai/ 1689 2

How to Find the Right Backpack

Your Backpack is the most important equipment for trekking in Himalayasrear Here is a infographic created by Trekking Equipment company REI . This How to find the right backpack is brief and somewhat scientific guide to backpack selection and trek preparation.

How do you measure the capacity of a backpack?

We measure the capacity of the backpack in liters you need to choose the right capacity of backpack for your trekking trip in himalayas. Normally we go for planned trekking trip so you don’t need to carry your sleeping bag and tents so for a 5 day trekking trip an ideal backpack capacity should around 60 to 70 liters.

How big is 30 liter backpack?

30 liter backpack is good enough to carry all the stuff you need for 1 or 2 nights.

How to Find the Right Backpack and backpack capacity

How to pack your backpack?


How do you pack your hiking backpack?

While packing your backpack you should always follow the principle of ABC where A stands for Accessibility, B for Balance and C for Compact. All your essential items like Jacket, Water bottle, Gloves or other light weight items should be in the Top of backpack where you can easily access them during the trek. For Balance all heavy item like crampons, hydration pack should be in the middle of the backpack and thing which you will require only in the night should be kept at the bottom of the backpack. To make your backpack more compact pack all clothes in polybags and then keep them in backpack or use Ranger Roll to pack your clothes for more compactness.

How to pack a hiking backpack diagram?

How to pack a hiking backpack diagram?
How to pack a hiking backpack diagram?

What Backpack Size do I need Diagram?

backpack capacity and backpack size - How to Find the Right Backpack

How do you wear a backpack?


How do you adjust a backpack?

  1. Put you arms through the straps and position the hipbelt on your hip bones
  2. Clip the hip belt buckle and pull the tails forward to tighten you should feel most of the weight on hips not on shoulders
  3. Snug the shoulder straps by pulling down of the webbing tails
  4. Pull the backpack toward your lower back with adjuster straps on the sides of the hipbelt.
  5. Adjust the shoulder straps by pulling them downward or lift the adjusting lock to loose the shoulder strap adjust according to your comfort.

How to pack a sleeping bag?

Hold the sleeping bag cover with one hand and start stuffing the sleeping bag from one side. No need to fold the sleeping bag and then insert in the sleeping bag cover.

Wildlife Of Ladakh

Posted By : adminwebnoo/ 212 0

Ladakh is a unique high altitude desert in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is one of the driest regions in the Indian Himalayas. Leh, the capital of Ladakh, experiences an average of only 110mm of rainfall per year and heavy snowfalls are rare. Ladakh’s position to the northeast of the Himalaya Range isolates it from the Indian monsoon. However, areas to the south of the Indus Valley and closer to the Himalaya Range experience a higher rainfall. Padum, in the Zanskar Valley, is subject to the occasional heavy storm that surges over the Himalaya Range in July and August, while in winter the heavy snowfalls block the passes to the rest of Ladakh. Ladakh is also the highest region in India, with elevations rarely below 3000m and often above 3500m.


Bharal  also known as the Himalayan Blue Sheep is a type of goat sheep found in the high Himalayas of Nepal,Tibet,China,Bhutan,Pakistan and India. In India, you may encounter Bharals while trekking across the region of Ladakh on the Markha Valley or Stok La treks.


Ibex are a species of wild goats found in the high Himalayas.


Urial is a subspecies group of a wild sheep Ovis orientalis.

Ibex and Urials may be seen from a distance in the more sheltered valleys in the Ladakh region. The best time to view these species is October. Schedule time in the vicinity of the high passes (for bharal) and in the remote valleys (for ibex and urial).

Snow Leapard

Snow Leapards are a moderately large cats which are native to the high mountain ranges of Central Asia.If you have ambitions to see a snow leopard, Ladakh and the Zanskar have the largest concentration in the West Himalayas. About two decades ago  two eminent naturalists from Delhi spent two winters in Ladakh before recording their first photos of the snow leopard at the head of the Markha Valley.


Lynx is a medium sized wildcat with a short tail and black tipped ears found in Eurasia and North America. The lynx, is as elusive as the Snow Leapard and preys mostly on Bharal.


Wild yaks are a long haired species of Bovids found in the Himalayan Region of  South Central Asia, Tibet and up to Mongolia and Russia. In Ladakh they are found in the vast open plateaus of Chang-chenmo.


Kiang are the largest species of wild asses in the world native to the Tibetan plateau and are found in the remote regions of Rupshu and Changtang.

Brown bears may be sighted in the remote valleys in the vicinity of Rangdum and areas of the Zanskar Valley. This is also the habitat of marmots whose shrill whistles alert other wildlife when danger approaches.

 Birdlife of Ladakh (Wildlife Of Ladakh)

The birdlife of Ladakh includes many species that migrate from the Indian subcontinent to central Asia in the summer. They include black-necked cranes, which breed in the lakes of eastern Ladakh. The citrine wagtail is another summer visitor, as is the horned lark, which is attracted to the vast high-altitude meadows. Large flocks of grandala also favour high-altitude meadows, as do streaked and great rosefinches and common ravens.

Tibetan partridges, snowcocks and chukars can be found in the scant high-altitude undergrowth.This is also the habitat of lammergeiers, while golden eagles prey on marmots, pikas and even small goats. Himalayan griffons, with their distinctive upturned wings, may be seen searching for prey high above the scant pastures, a habitat shared by another bird of prey – the merlin. Tibetan snowfinches and black-billed magpies are common in the villages of Ladakh.While white-tailed rubycoats are found alongside the mountain streams.


Flora and fauna of Uttarakhand

Posted By : adminwebnoo/ 4982 1

By Team Renok

The Garhwal  Himalayas were considered by the British to be the most spectacular part of the Himalayas. This was in part because Nepal was closed to foreigners but it is hard to deny the beauty of this part of the Western Himalayas. Nanda Devi in Uttarakhand owing to its geography was considered the highest mountain in the world until the computation of Dhaulagiri in 1808.

Forest leopards are found in the lower temperate forests throughout Uttarakhand. Serow and goral are found in the upper elevations of the temperate forests, where musk deer may also be spotted. To provide safer breeding grounds for these endangered species, a number of sanctuaries have been established, including one near Kedarnath.

Brown bear are found in the caves and ledges above the high alpine slopes, while black bear are sighted at lower elevations in the summer, close to the village cornfields. in the summers bears can be spotted on the trek to Dayara Bugyal and Dodital Trek

Bharal(Himalayan Blue sheep) and ibex are restricted to the high alpine pastures. Mountaineers and trekkers in the Nanda Devi Sanctuary in the 1970s were taken aback by the tame Bharal, while there were frequent sightings of snow leopards. Nowadays the ibex and bharal are confined to remote regions such as the Govind National Park, the alpine meadows beneath the Khatling Glacier and the upper reaches of the Milam Valley and the Markha Valley.

Birds of prey include golden eagles, lammergeiers(Bearded vulture) and Steppe eagles. Sparrow hawks are also seen swooping on small birds at lower altitudes. Koklass and kalij pheasants are regularly seen in the forested regions bordering the alpine pastures, as are cheer pheasants and the impressive satyr tragopan.

In the mixed forest, expect to see the distinctive white-capped water redstart, blue whistling thrush, leaf warblers, yellow-breasted greenfinches, Himalayan and scaly-bellied woodpeckers, white-tailed nuthatch and spotted forktails. Eurasian and blackheaded jays are found at lower altitudes, as are kingfishers, black-throated tits, flycatchers,Himalayan woodpeckers, Indian and Drongo cuckoos, barn swallows and winter wrens. Extensive chir forests extend from 1500m to 2300m across the many hill regions. Above the chir pine are temperate forests of horse chestnut, yew and sycamore, which give way to blue pine, bamboo and rhododendron. Birch groves are found in the upper regions to the west of the state.

To appreciate the striking relationship between vegetation and elevation, consider the trek days from Bedni Bugyal down to the village of Loharjang on the Roopkund Trek

This region also offers an exceptional range of wildflowers. The Valley of Flowers is famous for its meadow of endemic alpine flowers.

Potentila atrosanguinea

How to Dress in Layers for Trekking

Posted By : jai/ 2025 3

How to Dress in Layers for Trekking in Himalayas?

During your trekking trip in Himalayas in a day you can experience all weather cold, hot, rainy or may be windy so Layering is the tried and tested method used by Mountaineers for a long time. The beauty of this simple concept is that it allows you to make quick adjustments based on your activity level and changes in the weather. So for your next trekking trip in Himalayas get multiple layers and do not carry thick single jackets.

To Dress in Layers we can divide our clothing into broadly three layers for your Trekking Trips

1. Base Layer – near the skin, manages moisture

2. Insulation Layer – protects you from the cold on upcoming treks.

3 Shell or Outer Layer – protects you from Wind or Rain.

Here is the details How to Dress in Layers for Trekking?

Base Layer:

This Layer is next to your skin and helps in regulate your body temperature by moving perspiration away from your body. Keeping dry is important for maintaining a cool body temperature in the summer and avoiding hypothermia in the winter. If you have ever used a cotton T under your rain cover while hiking or trekking, you will get wet not from outside but from inside.

How to Dress in Layers for Trekking -Base Layer
Base Layer

Cotton is not a good material for this clothing layer instead synthetic fabrics like MTS, Capilene, PowerDry and CoolMax polyester or Silk are better alternatives for upcoming treks.

 Insulation Layer – Protects from cold

The insulating layer helps you retain heat by trapping air close to your body. Fleece vests, jackets and tights are classic examples of insulation ideal for outdoor activities and for more extreme conditions feather jackets are most appropriate. Down has a very good warmth:weight ratio, and can be packed down (squeezed) to take very little room but are very costly.

How to Dress in Layers for Trekking - Insulation

They not only trap air but are also made with moisture transferring fibers to help keep you dry.

Shell or Outer Layer – protects from Wind or Rain

The outermost clothes are called the shell layer, they block wind or water and have good mechanical strength. Ideally the shell layer clothes are breathable i.e they lets moisture through to the outside while not letting wind and water pass through from the outside to the inside. During your trekking in himalayas at high altitude passed it becomes windy.


Gore Tex is extensively used for outer layer and it is Waterproof and breathable made of the very strong fabrics. It is founded by W. L. Gore & Associates and they are best known for their this product which is used in various world leading brands.