The Himalaya vary from the backbone of the Garhwal region. In western Garhwal, it includes the Swargarohini vary, (sometimes thought to be Associate in Nursing extension of the Dhaula Dhar) and therefore the Bandarpunch vary, that forms the most division between the headwaters of the Yamuna and Bhagirathi Rivers. The Himalaya vary extends to the Gangotri region, wherever an enormous concentration of peaks virtually encloses the Gangotri ice mass. At the pinnacle of the ice mass, the Chaukhamba vary provides a formidable divide between the origin of the Bhagirathi and Alaknanda Rivers, whereas the peaks within the neighbourhood of the mountain peak Sanctuary additional outline mountain chain vary. Wildlife sightings have become more and rarer outside the national parks and sanctuaries. However, this region is home to black bears, forest leopards, serow, goral, mountain chain thar and deer. Brown bears square measure seen on the meadows near the treeline, whereas on the upper ridges snow leopards stalk bharal nearer to the villages’ square measure catarrhine, jungle cats and porcupines. Birdlife includes several warblers, owls, cuckoos, woodpeckers, magpies and minivets within the wooded regions. Pheasants also are found in forest clearings, whereas birds of prey embody the bearded vulture and bird of Jove. An obvious attraction is that the vale of the Flowers. However, Har ki Dun, the Khatling ice mass conjointly the several bugyals (high-altitude meadows) throughout the Garhwal also provide a cornucopia of wildflowers.
The locale comprises totally of rough mountain ranges running in all bearings and isolated by thin valleys, which now and again turn out to be profound canyons or gorges. The main level bit of the region was a slender piece of waterless backwoods between the southern inclines of the slopes and the rich fields of Rohilkhand. The most noteworthy mountains are in the eastern Chamoli region, the central tops being Nanda Devi 7,816 m (25,643 ft), Kamet 7,756 m (25,446 ft), Chaukhamba 7,138 m (23,419 ft), Trisul 7,120 m (23,360 ft), Dunagiri 7,066 m (23,182 ft), and Kedarnath 6,940 m (22,769 ft).
Himachal Pradesh is characterized by a complex series of mountain ranges. The lowest is that the Dhaula Dhar, that rises to an average elevation of 4500m to 5000m. To its north area unit the cover ridges of the Pir Panjal, followed by the nice Himalaya Range, that separates Himachal Pradesh and Ladakh several of its peaks rise higher than 6000m, whereas the frozen passes area unit higher than 5000m. On the far side this, the Zanskar vary forms the mountain divide between the Spiti natural depression and also the Tibetan highland. Himachal is additionally drained by 3 of the main tributaries of the Indus. This includes the Sutlej that flows from Sitsang before shaping a course through the Zanskar, Himalaya and Dhaula Dhar ranges; the Chenab flows from near Chandra Tal in Lahaul; whereas the supply of the Ravi is from the flanks of sacred peak of Mani Mahesh Kalias.
The Alaknanda River, one of the primary wellsprings of the Ganges, gets with its affluent the entire seepage of the locale. At Devprayag the Alaknanda joins the Bhagirathi, and thenceforward the united streams bear the name of the Ganges. Development is essentially restricted to the Prompt region of the waterways, which are utilized for watering system.
In June 2013 a multi-day torrent focused in the precipitous valleys of the zone brought about across the board harm and more than 5,000 deaths. It was India’s most noticeably awful characteristic catastrophe seeing that loss of life since the 2004 wave.